2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis
Part of the Crisis in Venezuela
Juan Guaidó in Group of Lima 2019 collage crop.jpg
Nicolás Maduro, president of Venezuela (2016) cropped.jpg
Date10 January 2019 (2019-01-10) – ongoing
(3 months and 16 days)
Caused by
MethodsProtests, support campaigns, foreign diplomatic pressure and sanctions
Parties to the civil conflict

A crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela has been underway since 10 January 2019, when the opposition-majority National Assembly declared that incumbent Nicolás Maduro's 2018 reelection was invalid and the body declared its president, Juan Guaidó, to be acting president of the nation.

The process and results of the May 2018 Venezuelan presidential election were widely disputed.[1] The National Assembly declared Maduro illegitimate on the day of his second inauguration, citing the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela enacted under Hugo Chávez, Maduro's predecessor; in response, the pro-Maduro Supreme Tribunal of Justice said the National Assembly's declaration was unconstitutional.[2]

Minutes after Maduro took the oath as president of Venezuela, the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council declaring Maduro's presidency illegitimate and urging new elections.[4] Special meetings of the OAS on 24 January and in the United Nations Security Council on 26 January were held but no consensus was reached. Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres called for dialogue.[5]

Maduro's government states that the crisis is a "coup d'état led by the United States to topple him and control the country's oil reserves."[6][7] Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement.[8] As of March 2019, Guaidó has been recognized as the interim president of Venezuela by 54 countries,[9] "including the US and most Latin American and European countries".[10] AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed with allies Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Guaidó as interim president.[11]


Since 2010, Venezuela has been suffering a socioeconomic crisis under Nicolás Maduro (and briefly under his predecessor, Hugo Chávez), as rampant crime, hyperinflation and shortages diminish the quality of life.[12][13] As a result of discontent with the government, the opposition was elected to hold the majority in the National Assembly for the first time since 1999 following the 2015 parliamentary election.[14] After the election, the lame duck National Assembly—consisting of Bolivarian officials—filled the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, the highest court in Venezuela, with Maduro allies.[14][15] The tribunal stripped three opposition lawmakers of their National Assembly seats in early 2016, citing alleged "irregularities" in their elections, thereby preventing an opposition supermajority which would have been able to challenge President Maduro.[14]

In January 2016, the National Assembly declared a "health humanitarian crisis" given the "serious shortage of medicines, medical supplies and deterioration of humanitarian infrastructure", asking Maduro's government to "guarantee immediate access to the list of essential medicines that are basic and indispensable and that must be accessible at all times".[16]

External video
Human Rights Watch multimedia report regarding the 2017 protests on YouTube

The tribunal approved several actions by Maduro and granted him more powers in 2017.[14] As protests mounted against Maduro, he called for a constituent assembly that would draft a new constitution to replace the 1999 Venezuela Constitution created under Chávez.[17] Many countries considered these actions a bid by Maduro to stay in power indefinitely,[18] and over 40 countries stated that they would not recognize the 2017 Constituent National Assembly (ANC).[19][20] The Democratic Unity Roundtable—the opposition to the incumbent ruling party—boycotted the election, saying that the ANC was "a trick to keep [the incumbent ruling party] in power".[21] Since the opposition did not participate in the election, the incumbent Great Patriotic Pole, dominated by the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, won almost all seats in the assembly by default.[22] On 8 August 2017, the ANC declared itself to be the government branch with supreme power in Venezuela, banning the opposition-led National Assembly from performing actions that would interfere with the assembly while continuing to pass measures in "support and solidarity" with President Maduro, effectively stripping the National Assembly of all its powers.[23]

Maduro disavowed the National Assembly in 2017;[24][25] as of 2018, some considered the National Assembly the only "legitimate" institution left in the country,[a] and human rights organizations said there were no independent institutional checks on presidential power.[b]

2018 election and calls for transitional government

In February 2018, Maduro called for presidential elections four months before the prescribed date.[37] He was declared the winner in May 2018 after multiple major opposition parties were banned from participating, among other irregularities; many said the elections were invalid.[38] Politicians both internally and internationally said Maduro was not legitimately elected,[39] and considered him an ineffective dictator.[40] In the months leading up to his 10 January 2019 inauguration, Maduro was pressured to step down by nations and bodies including the Lima Group (excluding Mexico), the United States, and the OAS; this pressure was increased after the new National Assembly of Venezuela was sworn in on 5 January 2019.[41][42] Between the May 2018 presidential election and Maduro's inauguration, there were calls to establish a transitional government.[43][44]

In December 2018, Guaidó had traveled to Washington D.C. and met with OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro, and then on 14 January 2019 to Colombia for a Lima Group meeting, in which Maduro's mandate was rejected.[45] According to an article in El País, the January Lima Group meeting and the stance taken by Canada's Chrystia Freeland were key.[45] El País describes Donald Trump's election—coinciding with the election of conservative presidents in Colombia and Brazil, along with deteriorating conditions in Venezuela—as "a perfect storm", with decisions influenced by US vice-president Mike Pence, United States Secretary of State Pompeo, National Security advisor John R. Bolton, and legislators Mario Díaz-Balart and Marco Rubio.[45] Venezuelans Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges and Gustavo Tarre were consulted, and the Trump administration decision to back Guaidó formed on 22 January, according to El País.[45] Díaz-Balart said that the decision was the result of two years of planning.[45]

Justification for the challenge

The Venezuelan opposition bases its actions on the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution, specifically Articles 233, 333 and 350. The first paragraph of Article 233 states: "The President of the Republic shall become permanently unavailable to serve by reason of any of the following events: death; resignation; removal from office by decision of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice; permanent physical or mental disability; ... abandonment of his position, duly declared by the National Assembly; and recall by popular vote."[46]

Later paragraphs describe what to do in the event of a vacancy due to "permanent unavailability to serve", depending on when the vacancy occurs:[46]

  • Prior to elected President's inauguration, "a new election ... shall be held within thirty consecutive days ... The President of the National Assembly shall take charge of the Presidency of the Republic".
  • During the first four years of President's six-year term, "a new election ... shall be held within thirty consecutive days ... The Executive Vice-President shall take charge of the Presidency of the Republic".
  • During the last two years of President's six-year term, "the Executive Vice-President shall take over the Presidency of the Republic until such term is completed".

Article 233 was invoked after death of Hugo Chávez, which took place soon after his inauguration, and extraordinary elections were called within thirty days. In 2019, the National Assembly invoked Article 233 due to abandonment of [President's] position, arguing that "de facto dictatorship" means no democratic leader.[47] Invoked by the National Assembly, Guaidó was declared acting president until elections could be held; Diego A. Zambrano, an assistant professor of law at Stanford Law School, says that "Venezuelan lawyers disagree on the best reading of this provision. Some argue Guaidó can serve longer if the electoral process is scheduled within a reasonable time".[48] The National Assembly announced that it will designate a committee to appoint a new National Electoral Council, in anticipation of free elections.[49]

Article 333 calls for citizens to restore and enforce the Constitution if it is not followed. Article 350 calls for citizens to "disown any regime, legislation or authority that violates democratic values". The National Assembly argues that both the national and international community must unite behind a transitional government that will guarantee humanitarian aid, bring the restoration of Venezuela's rule of law, and will hold democratic elections.[50]


January: Inauguration of Maduro

The Supreme Court chamber during the inauguration ceremony

Signs of impending crisis showed when a Supreme Court Justice and Electoral Justice seen as close to Maduro defected to the United States just a few days before the 10 January 2019 second inauguration of Nicolás Maduro. The justice, Christian Zerpa [es], said that Maduro was "incompetent" and "illegitimate".[41][42][51] Minutes after Maduro took the oath as president of Venezuela, the OAS approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council declaring Maduro's presidency illegitimate and urging new elections.[4] Maduro's election was supported by Turkey, Russia, China, and the Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA);[52][53] other small Caribbean nations reliant on economic assistance from the Maduro government (such as Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago) attended his inauguration.[54]

Maduro's government stated that the positions against him were the "result of imperialism perpetrated by the United States and allies" that put Venezuela "at the centre of a world war".[55]

Juan Guaidó surrounded by members of the opposition during the public assembly on 11 January 2019

Juan Guaidó, the newly appointed President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, began motions to form a provisional government shortly after assuming his new role on 5 January 2019, stating that whether or not Maduro began his new term on the 10th, the country would not have a legitimately elected president in either case.[56] On behalf of the National Assembly, he stated that the country had fallen into a de facto dictatorship and had no leader,[57] declaring that the nation faced a state of emergency.[47] He called for "soldiers who wear their uniforms with honor to step forward and enforce the Constitution", and asked "citizens for confidence, strength, and to accompany us on this path".[47]

Guaidó announced a public assembly, referred to as an open cabildo, on 11 January[58]—a rally in the streets of Caracas, where the National Assembly announced that Guaidó was assuming the role of the acting president under the Constitution of Venezuela and announcing plans to remove President Maduro.[59] Leaders of other political parties, trade unions, women, and the students of Venezuela were given a voice at the rally; other parties did not speak of a divide, but of what they saw as a failed Bolivarian Revolution that needed to end.[59]

Maduro's response was to call the opposition a group of "little boys", describing Guaidó as "immature". The Minister for Prison Services, Iris Varela, threatened that she had picked out a prison cell for Guaidó and asked him to be quick in naming his cabinet so she could prepare prison cells for them as well.[60]

National Assembly declares Guaidó acting president

Agreement approved by the National Assembly to declare the usurpation of the presidency by Nicolás Maduro on 15 January.

Following Guaidó's speech, the National Assembly released a press statement saying that Guaidó had assumed the role of acting president. A later statement clarified the position of Guaidó as "willing to assume command ... only possible with the help of Venezuelans".[61] The opposition did not consider this a coup d'état based on the acknowledged "illegitimacy" of Maduro by many governments, and the constitutional processes that the National Assembly said they were following,[62] specifically invoking Articles 233, 333, and 350 of the Constitution.[59] The president of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Venezuela in exile (based in Panama) wrote to Guaidó, requesting him to become acting president of Venezuela.[63]

On 15 January 2019, the National Assembly approved legislation to work with dozens of foreign countries to request that these nations freeze Maduro administration bank accounts.[64] Guaidó wrote a 15 January 2019 opinion piece in The Washington Post entitled "Maduro is a usurper. It's time to restore democracy in Venezuela"; he outlined Venezuela's erosion of democracy and his reasoning for the need to replace Maduro on an interim basis according to Venezuela's constitution.[65]

Guaidó announced nationwide protests to be held on 23 January—the same day as the removal of Marcos Pérez Jiménez in 1958—using a slogan chant of ¡Sí se puede!.[62][66] The National Assembly worked with a coalition (Frente Amplio Venezuela Libre) to create a plan for the demonstrations, organizing a unified national force.[67] On 11 January, plans to offer incentives for the armed forces to disavow Maduro were revealed.[68]

OAS Secretary-General Luis Almagro was the first to give official support to this action, tweeting "We welcome the assumption of Juan Guaidó as interim President of Venezuela in accordance with Article 233 of the Political Constitution. You have our support, that of the international community and of the people of Venezuela."[62] Later that day, Brazil and Colombia gave their support to Guaidó as acting president of Venezuela.[69]

Detention of Guaidó and rebellion within the National Guard

Guaidó was detained on 13 January by the Bolivarian Intelligence Service (SEBIN)[70] and released 45 minutes later.[71] The SEBIN agents who intercepted his car and took him into custody were fired.[72][73] The Information Minister, Jorge Rodríguez, said the agents did not have instructions and the arrest was orchestrated by Guaidó as a "media stunt" to gain popularity; BBC News correspondents said that it appeared to be a genuine ambush to send a message to the opposition.[72] Almagro condemned the arrest, which he called a "kidnapping", while Pompeo referred to it as an "arbitrary detention".[74]

After his detention, Guaidó said that Rodríguez's admission that the SEBIN agents acted independently showed that the government had lost control of its security forces; he called Miraflores (the presidential house and office) "desperate".[72][74] In a later announcement, he declared himself acting president, his most direct claim to the position.[75]

In early 2019, a group of Venezuelan ex-army and police officers in Peru announced support for Guaidó, disclaiming Maduro.[76] Multiple groups of similarly retired or displaced soldiers said that they would return to fight Maduro if needed.[77] During the January protests, at least 27 soldiers of the Venezuelan National Guard stationed near Miraflores Palace mutinied against Maduro. After overnight fighting, the soldiers were taken by authorities.[78][79]

Guaidó swears oath as acting president

23 January march in Caracas

On 23 January, Guaidó swore to serve as Acting President.[3] On that morning, Guaidó tweeted, "The world's eyes are on our homeland today."[80][81] On that day, millions of Venezuelans[82] demonstrated across the country and world in support of Guaidó,[83][84] described as "a river of humanity",[85] with a few hundred supporting Maduro outside Miraflores.[86][87] At one end of the blocked street was a stage where Guaidó spoke and took an oath to serve as interim president,[88][89] swearing himself in.[90]

Before the protest began, the Venezuelan National Guard used tear gas on gathering crowds at other locations.[88] Another area of the capital was blocked off at Plaza Venezuela, a large main square, with armored vehicles and riot police on hand before protestors arrived.[80] Photographic reports showed that some protests grew violent, resulting in injuries to both protesters and security.[91] By the end of the day, at least 13 people were killed.[92] Michelle Bachelet of the United Nations expressed concern that so many had been killed and requested a UN investigation into the security forces' use of violence.[93]

Mike Pence meets with Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges, and other Washington-based Venezuelan representatives on 29 January 2019

Guaidó began to appoint individuals in late January to serve as aides or diplomats, including Carlos Vecchio as the Guaidó administration's diplomatic envoy to the US,[94] Gustavo Tarre to the OAS,[95] and Julio Borges to represent Venezuela in the Lima Group.[96] He announced that the National Assembly had approved a commission to implement a plan for the reconstruction of Venezuela,[97][98] called Plan País (Plan for the Country).[99] He offered an Amnesty law, approved by the National Assembly, for military personnel and authorities who help to restore constitutional order.[100][101] The Statute Governing the Transition to Democracy was approved by the National Assembly on 5 February.[102]

Maduro's response

Maduro accused the US of backing a coup, and said he would cut ties with them.[103] He said Guaidó's actions were part of a "well-written script from Washington" to create a puppet state of the United States,[104] and appealed to the American people in a 31 January video, asking them not to convert Venezuela into another Vietnam.[105]

Maduro asked for dialogue with Guaidó, saying "if I have to go meet this boy in the Pico Humboldt at three in the morning I am going, [...] if I have to go naked, I am going, [I believe] that today, sooner rather than later, the way is open for a reasonable, sincere dialogue".[106] He stated he would not leave the presidential office, saying that he was elected in compliance with the Venezuelan constitution.[107] With the two giving speeches to supporters at the same time, Guaidó replied to Maduro's call for dialogue, saying he would not initiate diplomatic talks with Maduro because he believed it would be a farce and fake diplomacy that couldn't achieve anything.[108]

On 18 February, Maduro's government expelled a group of Members of the European Parliament that planned to meet Guaidó.[109] The expulsion was condemned by Guaidó as well as Pablo Casado, president of the Spanish People's Party, and the Colombian government.[110] Maduro's Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza defended the expulsions,[111] saying that the constitutional government of Venezuela "will not allow the European extreme right to disturb the peace and stability of the country with another of its gross interventionist actions" and added that "Venezuela must be respected."[112]

February: Humanitarian aid

2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis is located in Venezuela
Colombia Cúcuta
Brazil Pacaraima
Kingdom of the Netherlands Curaçao
Location of the proposed entry points for humanitarian aid.

Shortages in Venezuela have occurred since 2007 during the presidency of Hugo Chávez.[113] In 2016, the National Assembly of Venezuela had declared a humanitarian crisis considering "serious shortage of medicines, medical supplies and deterioration of humanitarian infrastructure", asking Maduro's government to provide access to essential medicines and medical supplies.[16] Before the presidential crisis, the Maduro government denied several offers of aid, stating that there was not a humanitarian crisis and that such claims were used to justify foreign intervention.[114] Maduro's refusal of aid worsened the effects of Venezuela's crisis.[114] During the presidential crisis, Maduro initially refused aid, stating that Venezuela is not a country of "beggars".[115]

Guaidó has made bringing humanitarian aid to the "hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans who could die if aid does not arrive" a priority.[116] Maduro prevented the American-sponsored aid from entering Venezuela;[116][117] As the first trucks with aid, escorted by Colombian police, approached the border on 7 February, human rights activists received them, and Venezuela's communications minister, Jorge Rodriguez said there was a plot between Colombia, the CIA and exiled Venezuelan politician Julio Borges to oust Maduro.[118] Guaidó issued an ultimatum to the Venezuelan Armed Forces on 12 February, stating that humanitarian aid will enter Venezuela on 23 February and that the armed forces "will have to decide if it will be on the side of the Venezuelans and the Constitution or the usurper".[119]

Humanitarian aid intended for Venezuela was also stockpiled on the Brazilian border.[120] Groups of indigenous Pemon peoples blocked the entry of military vehicles into the region,[121] and members of armed forces loyal to Maduro fired upon them with live ammunition on 22 February.[121] Fifteen Pemon were injured, four seriously, and two Pemon were killed.[122][123]

Venezuelan Dragoon 300s were deployed in Gran Sabana, near Pemon areas[120]

With what he declared was the help of the Venezuelan military,[124] Guaidó defied the restriction imposed by the Maduro administration on him leaving Venezuela, secretly crossed the border,[125] and showed up at the Venezuela Aid Live concert organized by Richard Branson in Cúcuta, Colombia on 22 February,[126] also to be present for the planned delivery of humanitarian aid.[124][127] Testing Maduro's authority, he was met by presidents Iván Duque of Colombia,[126][128] Sebastián Piñera from Chile,[129] and Mario Abdo Benítez from Paraguay,[130] as well as the OAS Secretary General Almagro.[128]

On 23 February, trucks with humanitarian aid attempted to pass into Venezuela from Brazil and Colombia, opposed by Maduro's administration.[131][132] At the Colombia–Venezuela border, the caravans were tear-gassed or shot at with rubber bullets by Venezuelan personnel.[133][134] Near the Brazil–Venezuela border, more than 2,000 indigenous people from Gran Sabana gathered to assist with the entrance of international aid.[135] The Venezuelan National Guard repressed demonstrations near Brazil, while colectivos attacked protesters in San Antonio del Táchira and Ureña,[136] leaving at least four dead and about 20 injured.[137][138] A ship originating from Puerto Rico attempted to deliver humanitarian aid to Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, but the vessel, carrying civilians, returned after the Bolivarian Navy of Venezuela threatened to "open fire" on it.[139]

By the end of the day, a preliminary report by the OAS stated there were more than 285 injured.[140] Guaidó said the world "had 'been able to see with their own eyes' how Maduro had violated international law. 'The Geneva protocols clearly state that destroying humanitarian aid is a crime against humanity,' he said."[141] Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez declared that "they saw only a little piece of what we are willing to do",[142] and Diosdado Cabello stated "we showed the tip of the iceberg".[143]

Lima Group meeting and Latin American tour

Guaidó, Colombia president Duque, and US vice president Pence during the February 2019 Lima Group meeting in Colombia

After a joint announcement with Almagro and Duque, where Guaidó asked that the international community continue to support "all options on the table",[144] Guaidó traveled from Cúcuta to Bogotá for a 24 February meeting with US vice president Pence.[145][144]

With the failure to bring humanitarian aid into Venezuela, the Lima Group met in Bogotá on 25 February amid continuing tension.[146][147] Guaidó and Pence attended the meeting;[148][146] Mexico, Costa Rica, Guyana and Saint Lucia did not attend.[149] The group urged the International Criminal Court to pursue charges of crimes against humanity for the Maduro administration's use of violence against civilians and blockade of humanitarian aid.[149][150]

Pence did not rule out the use of US military force.[146] The Venezuelan government responded saying that Pence was trying to order others to take the country's assets, and saying that its basic rights were being disregarded in a campaign to unseat Maduro.[147] The European Union and Brazil announced strong opposition to military intervention; Brazil's vice president said it would not permit its territory to be used to invade Venezuela,[151] and the European Union cautioned against the use of military force.[147][152] The Lima Group rejected the use of force.[149] The US FAA warned pilots not to fly below 26,000 feet over Venezuela,[153] and US military officials said they had flown reconnaissance flights off the coast of Venezuela to gather classified intelligence about Maduro.[154]

From Bogotá, Guaidó embarked on a regional tour to meet with the presidents of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Ecuador,[155] to discuss ways to rebuild Venezuela and defeat Maduro.[156] Guaidó's trip was approved by Venezuela's National Assembly, as required by the Constitution of Venezuela.[157] Because of the travel restriction placed upon him by the Maduro administration, he could face prison when returning to Venezuela;[155] Maduro said that Guaidó was welcome to return, but would have to face justice in the courts for breaching his travel ban.[158] Guaidó announced that he planned to return to Venezuela despite the threats of imprisonment, and said Maduro's "regime [was] weak, lacking support in Venezuela and international recognition".[159] He re-entered Venezuela on 4 March, via Simón Bolívar International Airport in Maiquetía;[160] he was received at the airport by diplomats from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United States,[160] and in Caracas by a crowd of supporters.[161]

Two days after Guaidó's return, Arreaza declared German ambassador Daniel Kriener persona non grata and gave him 48 hours to leave the country because of his role in helping Guaidó re-enter; only Kriener was targeted for expulsion.[160] The Venezuelan Foreign Ministry accused Kriener of interference in internal affairs and called it unacceptable for a foreign diplomat to act "in clear alignment with the conspiracy agenda of extremist sectors of the Venezuelan opposition".[160] German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas denounced the expulsion as an incomprehensible decision that escalates the situation instead of easing tensions.[162] Guaidó called on European governments to tighten financial sanctions against the Maduro government in response to its expulsion of the German ambassador.[163]

March: Blackouts, UN delegation visit, detention of Guaidó aide

Guri Dam that supplies most of Venezuela's power[164]

In March 2019, Venezuela experienced a near total electrical blackout, and Maduro accused the US of "masterminding a 'demonic' plot to force him from power by crippling the country's electricity system with an imperialist 'electromagnetic attack'," according to The Guardian.[165] There were at least 43 reported deaths.[166] Four more people died in a second large blackout that lasted from 25 to 28 March.[167][168]

Venezuela once produced over 3 million barrels per day (BPD) of crude oil.[169] Production "has been declining for years due to economic collapse"; in March, Venezuela lost another 150,000 barrels per day in production.[170] An oil expert told France 24 that production completely ceased at one point during the blackouts.[169] The lack of power caused most of Venezuela's oil rigs to be shut down, and for a short time, cut the country's production in half; production for the month dropped below 900,000 BPD.[c] Wills Rangel, a former director of PDVSA, said the Orinoco Belt has not yet recovered from the blackouts, and full recovery could take months.[172]

Maduro prosecutor Tarek Saab called for an investigation of Guaidó, alleging that he had "sabotaged" the electric sector.[174] Guaidó said that Venezuela's largest-ever power outage was "the product of the inefficiency, the incapability, the corruption of a regime that doesn't care about the lives of Venezuelans",[174] and The Guardian reported that "many specialists believe the calamitous nationwide blackout (...) is the result of years of mismanagement, corruption and incompetence".[175]

Maduro called on the colectivos saying, "The time has come for active resistance".[175][176] The US withdrew all embassy personnel from Venezuela.[177]

While Maduro visited hydroelectric facilities in Ciudad Guayana on 16 March, promising to restructure the state-run power company Corpoelec, his Vice President Delcy Rodríguez announced that Maduro would restructure his administration, asking the "entire executive Cabinet to put their roles up for review".[178] Guaidó announced he would embark on a tour of the country beginning 16 March, to organize committees for Operation Freedom with the goal to claim the presidential residence, Miraflores Palace.[179] From the first rally in Carabobo state, he said, "We will be in each state of Venezuela and for each state we have visited the responsibility will be yours, the leaders, the united, [to] organize ourselves in freedom commands."[179]

On 12 March, the National Assembly approved cutting Venezuela's oil supply to Cuba, saving about US$2.6M daily, according to Guaidó.[180] In the education sector, AVERU (Venezuelan Association of University Rectors) stated on 18 March that salaries for employees of public universities would be conditioned on the employee recognizing Maduro as president; AVERU said that by placing this condition, the Ministry of University Education was violating the Constitution and university autonomy.[181]

Following the February Lima Group meeting, Chilean President Sebastián Piñera criticized United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) commissioner Michelle Bachelet on 3 March for her failure to condemn Maduro, and called on her "to fulfill the role as high commissioner to defend human rights in a country where they are being brutally overrun".[182] Her office sent a five-person delegation to Venezuela from 11 to 22 March; the visit occurred during the nationwide blackout.[183][184] Government officials began to repair hospitals,[185] and the Lara state College of Physicians denounced that a "farce" was underway "to give an express makeover to the hospital, knowing that here people die due to lack of supplies".[186] On 20 March, Bachelet delivered a preliminary oral report before the UN Human Rights Council,[187][188] in which she outlined a devastating and deteriorating human rights situation in Venezuela, expressed concern that sanctions would worsen the situation, and called on authorities to show a true commitment to recognizing and resolving the situation.[189]

Roberto Marrero—Guaidó's chief of staff and Leopoldo López's attorney—was arrested by SEBIN during a raid on his home on 21 March.[190] The US had repeatedly warned Maduro not to go after Guaidó; Haaretz reported that the arrest of Guaidó's number-two person was a test of the US.[190] Just hours after Marrero's detention, the United States Department of the Treasury responded by placing sanctions on the Venezuelan bank BANDES and its subsidiaries.[191][192] Bolton told Univision the sanctions were a direct response to Marrero's arrest.[193]

Following Guaidó's Latin American tour in February 2019, Elvis Amoroso, comptroller for the Maduro administration, alleged in March that Guaidó had not explained how he paid for the trip, claimed there were inconsistencies between his level of spending and income,[194][195] and said Guaidó would be barred from running for public office for fifteen years.[194][196] The comptroller general is not a judicial body; according to constitutional lawyer José Vicente Haro, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruled in 2011 that an administrative body cannot disallow a public servant from running. Constitutional law expert Juan Manuel Raffalli stated that Article 65 of Venezuela's Constitution provides that such determinations may only be made by criminal courts, after judgment of criminal activity.[197]

April: Red Cross aid effort

US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo speaks at the OAS Permanent Council in January 2019

Francesco Rocca, president of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, announced in March that the Red Cross was preparing to bring humanitarian aid to the country in April to help ease both the chronic hunger and the medical crisis.[198] The Wall Street Journal said that the acceptance of humanitarian shipments by Maduro was his first acknowledgement that Venezuela is "suffering from an economic collapse".[199] Guaidó said the acceptance of humanitarian aid was the "result of our pressure and insistence",[199] and called on Venezuelans to "stay vigilant to make sure incoming aid is not diverted for 'corrupt' purposes".[200] Maduro and Arreaza met with representative of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on 9 April,[201] and Maduro, for the first time, indicated he was prepared to accept international aid—although denying a humanitarian crisis exists.[202] Red Cross was allowed access to prisons in Venezuela for first time since before Chávez died, ranging from prisons holding largely foreigners to prisons holding largely political prisoners to military detention centers.[203]

Following the joint report from Human Rights Watch and Johns Hopkins in April 2019, increasing announcements from the United Nations about the scale of the humanitarian crisis, and the softening of Maduro's position on receiving aid, the ICRC tripled its budget for aid to Venezuela.[204] The increased Red Cross aid would focus in four areas: the migration crisis, the health care system collapse, water and sanitation, and prisons and detention centers.[204]

The first Red Cross delivery of supplies for hospitals arrived on 16 April, offering an encouraging sign that the Maduro administration would allow more aid to enter.[205] According to the Associated Press, having long denied that there was a humanitarian crisis in Venezuela, Maduro positioned the delivery "as a necessary measure to confront punishing U.S. economic sanctions"; having "rallied the international community", Guaidó "quickly claimed credit for the effort".[206] According to The New York Times, "armed pro-government paramilitaries" fired weapons to disrupt the first Red Cross delivery, and officials associated with Maduro's party told the Red Cross to leave.[207]

Parliamentary immunity and OAS representative

TSJ supreme justice Maikel Moreno asked that the Constituent Assembly (ANC), "controlled by Chavismo", remove Guaidó's parliamentary immunity as president of the National Assembly,[208] moving the Maduro administration a step closer towards prosecuting Guaidó.[209] Supporters of Guaidó disagree that the Maduro-backed institutions have the authority to ban Guaidó from leaving the country, and consider acts of the ANC "null and void".[208] The Venezuelan Constitution provides that only the National Assembly can bring the President to trial by approving the legal proceeding in a "merit hearing".[208] On 2 April, after the ANC voted to remove his parliamentary immunity; Guaidó promised to continue fighting "Maduro’s 'cowardly, miserable and murderous' regime".[210]

On 9 April, the OAS voted 18 to 9, with six abstentions, to accept Guaidó's envoy, Gustavo Tarre Briceño, as the ambassador from Venezuela until new elections can be held. The permanent council approved a text stating that "Nicolas Maduro's presidential authority lacks legitimacy and his designations for government posts, therefore, lack the necessary legitimacy." Antigua and Barbuda, Bolivia, Dominica, Grenada, Mexico, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela voted against the change.[211] Maduro's administration responded calling Tarre a "loud-mouth political usurper" and the decision a "criminal and rampant violation of international law and the OAS Charter", saying they do not intend to respect decisions made by Tarre.[212] The nomination was accepted 20 days before the deadline on Venezuela leaving the organization, after they triggered the process in 2017. According to the Washington Post, this acceptance undermines Maduro's presence internationally and marks a step in the official recognition of Guaidó's government.[213]

In an open assembly celebrating the anniversary of the 19 April 1810 date when the Venezuelan War of Independence began, Guaidó offered the example that organized protests in Sudan led to the replacement of Omar al-Bashir, and called for "the greatest march" in history on 1 May, to "once and for all end this tragedy".[214] Coinciding with his speech, NetBlocks stated that state-run CANTV again blocked access to social media in Venezuela.[215]

Recognition, reactions, and public opinion

Nations recognizing presidential power as of 28 February 2019:
  Vocal neutrality
  No statement
  Support National Assembly
  Recognize Guaidó
  Recognize Maduro

As of March 2019, Guaidó is recognized as the interim president of Venezuela by 54 countries,[9] "including the US and most Latin American and European countries".[10] Other countries are divided between a neutral position, support for the National Assembly in general without endorsing Guaidó, and support for Maduro's presidency. The United States was the first country to recognize Guaidó on 23 January;[152] US President Donald Trump quickly recognized him and US vice president Mike Pence sent support and solidarity as well.[216] AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed by 24 January, with Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Guaidó.[11][217]

Russia has been a vocal supporter of Maduro, as well as being a military and economic ally.[218] Domestic reactions in Russia have been mixed with some publications praising Russia's support of Maduro and its willingness to confront the US, and others criticizing economic aid to Venezuela which they deem an economic black hole.[218] Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan offered immediate support,[219] and according to Haaretz, pledged investments in Venezuela's economy as well.[220] China was quick to support Maduro after the 2018 Venezuelan presidential election,[221] and voted against a UN resolution calling for new presidential elections.[222]

The European Parliament recognized Guaidó as interim president.[223] The European Union unanimously recognized the National Assembly,[224] but Italy dissented on recognizing Guaidó.[225] The OAS approved a resolution on 10 January 2019 "to not recognize the legitimacy of Nicolas Maduro's new term".[226] In a 24 January special OAS session, sixteen countries including the US recognized Guaidó as interim president, but they did not achieve the majority needed for a resolution.[227] The United Nations called for dialogue and deescalation of tension, but could not agree on any other path for resolving the crisis.[228] Twelve of the fourteen members of the Lima Group recognize Guaidó;[229] Mexico called for non-intervention in Venezuelan internal affairs,[230] and Uruguay supports Maduro, but calls for new elections.[231][232] Beatriz Becerra—on the day after she retired as head of the human rights subcommittee for the European Parliament—said that the International Contact Group, jointly sponsored by Uruguay and Mexico, had been of no use and "has been an artifact that has served no purpose since it was created". She said there had been no progress on the 90-day deadline for elections that the group established when it was formed, and she considered that the Contact Group should be terminated and efforts coordinated through the Lima Group.[233]

Public opinion polls taken after 23 January show more than 80% of Venezuelans support Guaidó as acting president.[234][235][236] The Venezuelan Observatory of Social Conflict stated that there were on average 69 protests daily in Venezuela during the first three months of 2019, for a total of 6,211 protests, representing a significant increase over previous years (157% of protests for the same period in 2018, and 395% relative to the number in 2017).[237]


The Miami Herald reported that the Maduro regime feared a military uprising and defections, had made many arrests, and Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino López ordered a counterintelligence effort to locate conspiracists or possible defectors.[235] According to France 24, Maduro declared "military deserters who fled to Colombia have become mercenaries" as part of a US-backed coup.[239] Guaidó declared that the opposition had held secret meetings with military officials to discuss the Amnesty Law.[77]

Hugo Carvajal, the head of Venezuela's military intelligence for ten years during Hugo Chávez's presidency and "one of the government's most prominent figures",[240] publicly broke with Maduro and endorsed Guaidó as acting president.[241]

Several top military figures recognized Guaidó,[242][243] and hundreds of military personnel have defected to Colombia, but top military command has not broken ranks with Maduro as of mid-April 2019.[244]

Following the 23 January events, some Venezuelan diplomats in the United States supported Guaidó; the majority returned to Venezuela on Maduro's orders.[245]

Foreign military involvement

On 18 February, President Donald Trump advised Venezuelan soldiers to renounce loyalty to Nicolás Maduro.[246]

In early 2019, with Cuban and Russian-backed security forces in the country, United States military involvement became the subject of speculation.[247] Senior U.S. officials have declared that "all options are on the table",[248] but have also said that "our objective is a peaceful transfer of power".[249] Maduro announced that state funds would be used to purchase new military equipment, saying "we are going to make enough investment so that Venezuela has all the anti-aircraft and anti-missile defense systems ... even the most modern in the world, Venezuela will have them because Venezuela wants peace".[250]

Colombian guerrillas from National Liberation Army (ELN) have also vowed to defend Maduro, with ELN leaders in Cuba stating that they are drafting plans to provide military assistance to Maduro.[251] The Redes Foundation denounced in the Colombian Public Ministry that armed groups made up of ELN members and FARC dissidents, supported by the Bolivarian National Police and FAES officials, murdered two Venezuelans, Eduardo José Marrero and Luigi Ángel Guerrero, during a protest in the frontier city of San Cristóbal, on Táchira state.[252]

Michael Shifter, president of the Inter-American Dialogue think tank, stated that "military action of the United States against Venezuela would be contrary to the movements of the Trump administration to retire troops from Syria or Afghanistan."[253] According to professor Erick Langer of Georgetown University, "Cuba and Russia have already intervened".[247] A Cuban military presence of at least 15,000 personnel was in Venezuela in early 2018,[254] while estimates ranging from hundreds to thousands of Cuban security forces were reported in 2019.[247]

According to Giancarlo Fiorella, writing in Foreign Affairs, the "loudest calls for intervention are coming not from the White House and its media mouthpieces but from some members of the Venezuelan opposition and from residents of the country desperate for a solution—any solution—to their years-long plight."[248] Fiorella states that "talk of invoking article 187(11) has become commonplace" in Venezuela, adding that "the push for a military intervention in Venezuela is most intense not among hawks in Washington but inside the country itself".[248] Article 187 of the Constitution of Venezuela provides: "It shall be the function of the National Assembly: (11) To authorize the operation of Venezuelan military missions abroad or foreign military missions within the country."[46][248] In every demonstration summoned by Guaidó, there are numerous signs demanding the application of Article 187.[255] Following the unsuccessful attempt to bring humanitarian aid into Venezuela on 23 February, a political faction supported by National Assembly deputy María Corina Machado began to demand application of Article 187, to "open the way" for "foreign intervention in order to prevent crimes against humanity".[248] Former mayor of Caracas, Antonio Ledezma has also called for application of 187, and the calls for intervention have taken hold outside of the political realm, with a March poll showing 87.5% support for foreign intervention.[d][248] Guaidó has said he will call for intervention "when the time comes", but in media interviews, he has not stated he supports removing Maduro by force.[248]

Russian presence

Reuters reported that Russian mercenaries associated with the Wagner Group were in Venezuela to defend Maduro's government.[256] Professor Robert Ellis of the United States Army War College described 400 Wagner Group mercenaries provided by Russia as the "palace guard of Nicolás Maduro".[247] Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov denied the deployment of Russian mercenaries, calling it "fake news".[257][258]

Two nuclear weapon-capable Russian planes landed in Venezuela in December 2018 in what Reuters called a "show of support for Maduro's socialist government".[259] On 3 March 2019, Russian Federation Council speaker Valentina Matviyenko told Venezuelan Vice President Delcy Rodríguez that Russia will make every effort to prevent military intervention in Venezuela and believes that the crisis was artificially created by the US, which can be solved only through dialogue.[260]

On 23 March 2019, two Russian planes landed in Venezuela carrying 99 troops[261] and 35 tonnes of matériel.[259] Alexey Seredin from the Russian Embassy in Caracas said the two planes were "part of an effort to maintain Maduro's defense apparatus, which includes Sukhoi fighter jets and anti-aircraft systems purchased from Russia".[261] On 29 March, a flight simulation center for Russian helicopters was launched in Venezuela,[262] and another flight simulator center is planned, as is a plant to produce Russian arms.[261] Russia supplies arms, special forces, and military advisors to Venezuela, and a base for cyber warfare is under construction on a Venezuelan island.[263]

Diosdado Cabello said the arrival of the planes was approved and authorized by Maduro.[264] Russian Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Maria Zakharova also confirmed the presence of military personnel in Venezuela, arguing that the countries had a bilateral agreement on military cooperation signed by Presidents Putin and Chávez in May 2001.[265][266] Seredin said Russian investments in Venezuelan mining, agriculture and transportation is also contemplated.[261]

National Assembly deputy Williams Dávila said the National Assembly would investigate the "penetration of foreign forces in Venezuela", since Venezuela's Constitution requires that the legislature authorize foreign military missions and the arrival of Russian military was a "violation of Venezuelan sovereignty".[267] Guaidó declared that foreign soldiers have been imported because Maduro's government does not trust the Venezuelan Armed Forces.[268] US Secretary of State Pompeo accused Russia of "reckless escalation" of the situation in Venezuela,[264] and warned Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov that the US would "not stand idly by", but did not say what the US response to Russian troops in Venezuela would be.[269] Lavrov responded by accusing the Trump administration of organizing a coup in Venezuela.[270] A United States Southern Command spokesperson said Russia's deployment of troops "directly undercuts the democratic aspirations of the Venezuelan people"; the OAS called it "a harmful act to Venezuelan sovereignty".[271] In late March, US National Security Advisor Bolton said the US considered Russia's involvement a "direct threat to international peace and security in the region".[261]

In April 2019, Malta refused to allow Russian planes to use its airspace to supply Maduro's government. Morgan Ortagus, spokeswoman of the United States State Department, applauded the decision; weeks earlier, the US raised concerns when Russian planes from Syria crossed Malta's airspace to transport soldiers and matériel to Venezuela.[272] Russia described Malta's actions as "unfriendly" and warns that it will take this into account in bilateral relations between the two countries.[273]

Assets and reserves

Venezuela's third-largest export (after crude oil and refined petroleum products) is gold.[274] The World Gold Council reported in January 2019 that Venezuela's foreign-held gold reserves had fallen by 69% to US$8.4 billion during Maduro's presidency.[275]

In mid-December 2018, a Venezuelan delegation went to London to arrange for the Bank of England to return the $1.2 billion in gold bullion that Venezuela stores at the bank. Unnamed sources told Bloomberg that the Bank of England declined the transfer due to a request from US Secretary of State Pompeo and National Security Adviser Bolton, who wanted to "cut off the regime from its overseas assets".[276] In an interview with the BBC, Maduro asked Britain to return the gold instead of sending humanitarian aid, saying that the gold was "legally Venezuela's, it belongs to the Central Bank of Venezuela" and could be used to solve the country's problems. Guaidó asked the British government to ensure that the Bank of England does not provide the gold to the Maduro government. Maduro also said that US sanctions have frozen $10 billion in Venezuelan overseas accounts.[277]

In mid-February 2019, a National Assembly legislator Angel Alvarado said that eight tonnes of gold worth over US$340 million[274] had been taken from the vault while the head of the Central Bank was abroad.[278] In March, Ugandan investigators reported that the gold could have been smuggled into that country.[279] Government sources said another eight tonnes of gold was taken out of the Central Bank in the first week of April 2019; the government source said that there were 100 tonnes left. The gold was removed while minimal staff was present and the bank was not fully operational because of the ongoing, widespread power outages; the destination of the gold was not known.[280][281]

In 2009, Venezuela's foreign reserves peaked at US$43 billion; by July 2017, they had fallen below $10 billion "for the first time in 15 years",[282] and as of March 2019, they had dropped to US$8 billion.[283] About two-thirds of Venezuela's reserves are in gold.[284] Part of Venezuela's remaining reserves are held by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in financial instruments called SDRs. In 2018, Venezuela had almost $1 billion in IMF SDRs, but it had drawn US$600 million in one year. To access SDR reserves, IMF rules require than a government be recognized by a majority of IMF members, and there is no majority recognition for either man claiming the Venezuelan presidency; the IMF denied Maduro access to the remaining US$400 million—"one of the regime’s last remaining sources of cash" according to Bloomberg.[284] The IMF has not recognized Guaidó;[285] Ricardo Hausmann—Guaidó's representative recognized by the Inter-American Development Bank—said the "IMF is safeguarding the assets until a new government takes over. 'Those funds will be available when this usurpation ends.'" The US has given Guaidó control of "key Venezuelan bank accounts",[284] and has said it will give Guaidó control of US assets once his administration is in power.[277]

The Portuguese bank Novo Banco stopped Maduro's attempt to transfer over US$1 billion[286] through BANDES subsidiary, Banco Bandes Uruguay, in early 2019.[287] Over two months later, Maduro responded that Portugal had illegally blocked the money, and asked that it be returned to buy food and medicine.[288]


Bomba PDV.jpg
Station service Repsol.jpg
Filling stations
Top: Venezuela's PDVSA; bottom: Russia's Rosneft, Spain's Repsol

During the crisis in Venezuela, the United States, the European Union, Canada, Mexico, Panama and Switzerland have applied individual sanctions against people associated with Maduro's administration, including government officials, members of the military and security forces, and private individuals alleged to be involved in human rights abuses, corruption, degradation in the rule of law and repression of democracy. Public Radio International (PRI) said the sanctions targeted Maduro and Chavismo "elites", while "they've done little to make an impact on ordinary Venezuelans, whose lives have spiraled into a humanitarian crisis as hyperinflation has driven nearly 3 million to flee."[289] As of 27 March 2018, the Washington Office on Latin America said 78 Venezuelans associated with Maduro had been sanctioned by several countries.[290]

In 2018, Trump signed an order that prohibits people in the U.S. from making any type of transaction with digital currency emitted by or in the name of the government of Venezuela as of 9 January 2018. The executive order referenced "Petro", a crypto-currency also known as petromoneda.[291]

As the humanitarian crisis deepened and expanded, the Trump administration levied more serious economic sanctions against Venezuela, and "Maduro accused the US of plunging Venezuelan citizens further into economic crisis."[289] In January 2019, during the presidential crisis, the United States imposed sanctions on the Venezuelan state-owned oil and natural gas company PDVSA to pressure Maduro to resign.[292] Reuters said the sanctions are expected to reduce Venezuela's ability to purchase food and other imports which could result in further shortages and worsen its economic position.[292] PRI said that "sanctions against PDVSA are likely to yield stronger and more direct economic consequences".[289] Companies including India's Reliance Industries Limited, Russia's Rosneft, Spain's Repsol, and commodity trading companies Trafigura and Vitol continue to supply Venezuela's oil industry as of 11 April 2019.[293]

On 17 April, Reuters reported that Repsol was in discussion with the Trump administration and had suspended its swaps with PDVSA.[294] Stating it was a "sign of the growing dependence of Venezuela's cash-strapped government on Russia", Reuters reported on 18 April 2019 that the Maduro administration was bypassing the sanctions by funneling cash from petroleum sales through Russia's Rosneft.[295] Reliance denied reports that it was in violation of sanctions.[296]

The United States Department of the Treasury placed sanctions affecting Venezuela's gold industry in March 2019, explaining that Maduro's government "is pillaging the wealth of Venezuela while imperiling indigenous people by encroaching on protected areas and causing deforestation and habitat loss".[297] After the detention of Guaidó's chief of staff, Roberto Marrero, in March 2019, the US also sanctioned the Venezuelan bank BANDES and its subsidiaries.[191] The Maduro administration issued a statement saying that it "energetically rejects the unilateral, coercive, arbitrary and illegal measures" that would affect banking for millions of people.[287]

In a speech on 17 April 2019 in Miami on the anniversary of the failed 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion, Bolton announced new restrictions on U.S. dealings with the three countries he calls the troika of tyranny—Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela—as "part of a broader set of policies" aimed at "reversing the Obama administration's embrace" of Cuba.[298] Maduro said the sanctions were "totally illegal" and that "Central banks around the world are sacred, all countries respect them. ... To me the empire looks crazy, desperate."[299]

Censorship and media control

Univision anchor Jorge Ramos was detained by the Maduro administration in February 2019 after a live interview.

Between 12 January and 18 January,[300][301] internet access to Wikipedia (in all languages) was blocked in Venezuela[302][303] after Guaidó's page on the Spanish Wikipedia was edited to show him as president.[304]

Later on 21 January, the day of a National Guard mutiny in Cotiza, internet access to some social media was reported blocked for CANTV users. The Venezuelan government denied it had engaged in blocking.[305][306] During the 23 January protests, widespread internet outages for CANTV users were reported.[307][308]

Live streams of the National Assembly sessions and Guaidó's speeches have been regularly disrupted for CANTV users.[309] Since 22 January, some radio programs have been ordered off air; other programs have been temporarily canceled or received censorship warnings, including a threat to close private television and radio stations if they recognize Guaidó as acting president or interim president of Venezuela.[310]

The website "Voluntarios X Venezuela" was promoted by Guaidó and the National Assembly to gather volunteers for humanitarian aid.[311] Between 12 and 13 February, CANTV users that tried to access were redirected to a mirror site with a different URL address. The mirror site asked for personal information: names, ID, address and telephone numbers. The phishing website used the .ve domain controlled by Conatel. This manipulation was denounced as a technique to identify dissidents to the government.[312] Following the phishing incident, the official site was completely blocked for CANTV users on 16 February.[313]

The Venezuelan press workers union denounced that in 2019, 40 journalists had been illegally detained as of 12 March; the National Assembly Parliamentary Commission for Media declared that there had been 173 aggressions against press workers as of 13 March. The commission planned to report these aggressions to the International Criminal Court.[314]

See also

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