Assam
Clockwise from top Academic complex of IIT Guwahati, Ahom Raja Palace, Kamakhya Temple, Rang Ghar, Kolia Bhomora Setu, Kaziranga Rhino and Sivasagar Sivadol.
Motto(s): 
Joy Aai Asom (Hail mother Assam)
Anthem:"O Mur Apunar Desh"[1]
(O my Dearest Country)
IN-AS.svg
Coordinates (Dispur, Guwahati): 26°08′N 91°46′E / 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77Coordinates: 26°08′N 91°46′E / 26.14°N 91.77°E / 26.14; 91.77
Country India
Statehood26 January 1950[1]
CapitalDispur
Largest cityGuwahati
Districts33
Government
 • GovernorJagdish Mukhi[2]
 • Chief MinisterSarbananda Sonowal (BJP)
 • Legislature126 seats
 • Federal representationRajya Sabha 7
Lok Sabha 14
 • High CourtGauhati High Court
Area
 • Total78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi)
Area rank16th
Elevation
45-1,960 m (148-6,430 ft)
Population
 (2011)
 • Total31,169,272
 • Rank15th
 • Density397/km2 (1,030/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Assamese, Axomiya
GDP (2016–17)
 • Total2.54 lakh crore (US$37 billion)
 • Per capita67,303 (US$970)
Languages
 • OfficialAssamese[4]
 • Additional officialBengali in Barak Valley[5]
Bodo in BTAD[6]
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AS
HDI (2015)Increase 0.605[7]
medium · 30th
Literacy (2011)72.19%[8]
Sex ratio (2011)958 /1000 [8]
Websiteassam.gov.in
First recognised as an administrative division on 1 April 1911, and led to the establishment of Assam Province by partitioning Province of East Bengal and Assam.
^[*] Assam was one of the original provincial divisions of British India.
^[*] Assam has had a legislature since 1937.[9]
Symbols
Language
Oxomiya in Oxomiya Lipi.svg
Assamese
Dance
Bihu dance of Assam.jpg
Bihu dance
Animal
KAZIRANGA.JPG
One horned rhinoceros
Bird
White-winged Wood Duck (Cairina scutulata) RWD5.jpg
White-winged wood duck
Flower
A and B Larsen orchids - Rhynchostylis retusa 1015-24.jpg
Rhynchostylis retusa
TreeDipterocarpus macrocarpus
River
A view of sunset from Biswanath Ghat.jpg
Brahmaputra

Assam (Assamese pronunciation: [ɔxɔm] (About this soundlisten)) is a state in northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys. Assam covers an area of 78,438 km2 (30,285 sq mi). The state is bordered by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh to the north; Nagaland and Manipur to the east; Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram and Bangladesh to the south; and West Bengal to the west via the Siliguri Corridor, a 22 kilometres (14 mi) strip of land that connects the state to the rest of India.

Assam is known for Assam tea and Assam silk. The state was the first in Asia, where oil was drilled.[10] Assam has conserved the one-horned Indian rhinoceros from near extinction, along with the wild water buffalo, pygmy hog, tiger and various species of Asiatic birds, and provides one of the last wild habitats for the Asian elephant. The Assamese economy is aided by wildlife tourism to Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park, which are World Heritage Sites. Sal tree forests are found in the state which, as a result of abundant rainfall, look green all year round. Assam receives more rainfall than most parts of India; this rain feeds the Brahmaputra River, whose tributaries and oxbow lakes provide the region with a hydro-geomorphic environment.

Etymology

The precise etymology of the modern anglicised word "Assam" is ambiguous. In the classical period and up to the 12th century the region east of the Karatoya river, largely congruent to present-day Assam, was called Kamarupa, and alternatively, Pragjyotisha.[11] In medieval times the Mughals used Asham (eastern Assam) and Kamrup (western Assam),[12][13][14] and during British colonialism, the English used Assam. Though many authors have associated the name with the 13th century Shan invaders[15] the precise origin of the name is not clear. It was suggested by some that the Sanskrit word Asama ("unequalled", "peerless", etc.) was the root, which has been rejected by Kakati,[16] and more recent authors have concurred that it is a latter-day Sanskritization of a native name.[17] Among possible origins are Tai (A-Cham)[18] and Bodo (Ha-Sam).[19]

History