The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council

Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder
1867–1918
Motto: Indivisibiliter ac Inseparabiliter
"Indivisible and Inseparable"
Anthem: None
Imperial anthem
Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze / Unsern Kaiser, unser Land!
God Save, God Protect Our Emperor, Our Country!
Cisleithania (pink) within Austria-Hungary, the other parts being Transleithania (green) and the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (blue)
Cisleithania (pink) within Austria-Hungary, the other parts being Transleithania (green) and the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (blue)
StatusConstituent of Austria-Hungary
CapitalVienna
Common languagesGerman, Czech, Polish, Croatian, Serbian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Slovene, Italian
Religion
Roman Catholic, Protestantism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Judaism
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Emperor 
• 1867–1916
Francis Joseph I
• 1916–1918
Charles I
Ministers-President 
• 1867–1871
Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust
• 1918
Heinrich Lammasch
LegislatureImperial Council
House of Lords
House of Deputies
Historical eraNew Imperialism
30 March 1867
31 October 1918
11 November 1918
• Monarchy abolished
12 November 1918
Area
1910300,005 km2 (115,833 sq mi)
Population
• 1910
28,571,934
Currency
ISO 3166 codeAT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Austrian Empire
Republic of German-Austria
First Czechoslovak Republic
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Second Polish Republic
Kingdom of Romania
West Ukrainian People's Republic
Kingdom of Italy

Cisleithania (German: Cisleithanien, also Zisleithanien, Hungarian: Ciszlajtánia, Czech: Předlitavsko, Slovak: Predlitavsko, Polish: Przedlitawia, Croatian: Cislajtanija, Serbian: Цислајтанија Slovene: Cislajtanija, Romanian: Cisleithania, Ukrainian: Цислейтанія, transliterated: Tsysleitàniia, Italian: Cisleitania) was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.

The Cisleithanian capital was Vienna, the residence of the Austrian emperor. The territory had a population of 28,571,900 in 1910. It reached from Vorarlberg in the west to the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Duchy of Bukovina (today part of Ukraine and Romania) in the east, as well as from the Kingdom of Bohemia in the north to the Kingdom of Dalmatia (today part of Croatia) in the south. It comprised the current States of Austria (except for Burgenland), as well as most of the territories of the Czech Republic and Slovenia (except for Prekmurje), southern Ukraine and parts of Italy (Trieste, Gorizia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol), Croatia (Istria, Dalmatia) and Montenegro (Kotor Bay).

Term

Lesser coat of arms of the Austrian lands from 1915, featuring the double-headed Imperial Eagle with red-white-red escutcheon, Imperial Crown and Imperial Regalia

The Latin name Cisleithania derives from that of the Leitha River,[1] a tributary of the Danube forming the historical boundary between the Archduchy of Austria and the Hungarian Kingdom in the area southeast of Vienna (on the way to Budapest). Much of its territory lay west (or, from a Viennese perspective, on "this" side) of the Leitha.

After the constitutional changes of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Cisleithanian crown lands (Kronländer) continued to constitute the Austrian Empire, but the latter term was rarely used to avoid confusion with the era before 1867, when the Kingdom of Hungary had been a constituent part of that empire. The somewhat cumbersome official name was Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder ("The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council"). The phrase was used by politicians and bureaucrats, but it had no official status until 1915; the press and the general public seldom used it and then with a derogatory connotation. In general, the lands were just called Austria, but the term "Austrian lands" (Österreichische Länder) originally did not apply to the Lands of the Bohemian Crown (i.e., Bohemia proper, the Margraviate of Moravia and Duchy of Silesia) or to the territories annexed in the 18th-century Partitions of Poland (Galicia) or the former Venetian Dalmatia.

From 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia, the Kingdom of Slavonia and the Principality of Transylvania were no longer "Austrian" crown lands. Rather, they constituted an autonomous state, officially called the "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St Stephen" (Hungarian: Szent István Koronájának Országai or A Magyar Szent Korona Országai, German: Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone) and commonly known as Transleithania or just Hungary. The Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina, occupied in 1878, formed a separate part. Both the "Austrian" and "Hungarian" lands of the Dual Monarchy had large Slavic-settled territories in the north (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles and Ruthenians) as well as in the south (Slovenes, Croats and Serbs).

Crown lands

Cisleithania consisted of 17 crown lands which had representatives in the Imperial Council (Reichsrat), the Cisleithanian parliament in Vienna. The crown lands centered on the Archduchy of Austria (Erzherzogtum Österreich) were not states, but provinces in the modern sense.[citation needed] However, they were areas with unique historic political and legal characteristics and were therefore more than mere administrative districts.[citation needed] They have been conceived of as "historical-political entities".[citation needed]

Each crown land had a regional assembly, the Landtag, which enacted laws (Landesgesetze) on matters of regional and mostly minor importance. Until 1848, the Landtage had been traditional diets (assemblies of the estates of the realm). They were disbanded after the Revolutions of 1848 and reformed after 1860. Some members held their position as ex officio members (e.g., bishops), while others were elected. There was no universal and equal suffrage, but a mixture of privilege and limited franchise. The executive committee of a Landtag was called Landesausschuss and headed by a Landeshauptmann, being president of the Landtag as well.

From 1868 onwards Emperor Franz Joseph himself (in his function as monarch of a crown land, being king, archduke, grandduke, duke or count) and his Imperial–Royal (k.k.) government headed by the Minister-President of Austria were represented at the capital cities of the crown lands—except for Vorarlberg which was administered with Tyrol, and Istria and Gorizia-Gradisca which were adminstred together with Trieste under the common name of Austro-Illyrian Littoral— by a stadtholder (Statthalter), in few crown lands called Landespräsident, who acted as chief executive.

Austria–Hungary:
Cisleithania (Empire of Austria): 1. Bohemia, 2. Bukovina, 3. Carinthia, 4. Carniola, 5. Dalmatia, 6. Galicia, 7. Austrian Littoral, 8. Lower Austria, 9. Moravia, 10. Salzburg, 11. Silesia, 12. Styria, 13. Tyrol, 14. Upper Austria, 15. Vorarlberg;
Transleithania (Kingdom of Hungary): 16. Hungary proper 17. Croatia-Slavonia;
Austrian-Hungarian Condominium: 18. Bosnia and Herzegovina

Kingdoms