Delhi
National Capital Territory of Delhi
From top clockwise: Lotus temple, Humayun's Tomb, Connaught Place, Akshardham temple and India Gate
Official logo of Delhi
Seal of NCT Delhi
Location of Delhi in India
Location of Delhi in India
Coordinates: 28°36′36″N 77°13′48″E / 28.61000°N 77.23000°E / 28.61000; 77.23000Coordinates: 28°36′36″N 77°13′48″E / 28.61000°N 77.23000°E / 28.61000; 77.23000
Country India
Settled6th century B.C.
Capital formation1911
Formation of Union Territory[1][2]1956
Formation of NCT[3]1 February 1992
CapitalNew Delhi
Districts11
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Delhi
 • Lt. GovernorAnil Baijal, IAS[4]
 • Chief MinisterArvind Kejriwal (AAP)
 • Deputy Chief MinisterManish Sisodia
 • Chief SecretaryVijay Kumar Dev, IAS[5]
 • Commissioner of PoliceAmulya Patnaik, IPS[6]
Area
 • Union territory1,484.0 km2 (573.0 sq mi)
 • Water18 km2 (6.9 sq mi)
Area rank31st
Elevation
200–250 m (650–820 ft)
Population
 (2011)[7]
 • Union territory16,787,941
 • Density11,312/km2 (29,298/sq mi)
 • Urban16,349,831 (2nd)
 • Megacity11,034,555 (2nd)
 • Metro (2016)26,454,000 (1st)
Demonym(s)Delhiite
Languages
 • Official
 • Additional official
GDP (2018–19)
 • Total7.79 trillion (US$110 billion)
 • Per Capita365,529 (US$5,300)
 • Metro GDP/PPP$167–370 billion[12][13][14]
Time zoneUTC+5.30 (IST)
PINs[15]
110000–110099
Area code(s)+91 11
ISO 3166 codeIN-DL
HDI (2017)Increase 0.744[16] (High) · 5th
Literacy (2011)86.21%[17]
Sex ratio (2011)868 /1000 [17]
Websitedelhi.gov.in

Delhi (/ˈdɛli/, Hindi pronunciation: [dɪlliː] Dillī, Punjabi pronunciation: [dɪlliː] Dillī, Urdu pronunciation: [dɛhliː] Dehlī), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India.[18][19] It is bordered by Haryana (Gurugram, Faridabad, Jhajjar and Sonipat) on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh (Gautam Budh Nagar, Ghaziabad and Baghpat) to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[7] the second-highest in India after Mumbai,[20] while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[8] Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Sonipat, Ghaziabad and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region (CNCR) and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's third-largest urban area according to United Nations.[9] As of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[13][12][21][14] Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.[22] Delhi ranks fifth among the Indian states and union territories in human development index.[16] Delhi has the second-highest GDP per capita in India.[11]

Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE.[23] Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region.

A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982, respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[24][25]

Toponym

There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself.[26][27][28] Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhily (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.[28] The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called Dehliwal.[29] According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort detail.[30] Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or detail—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[31][32][33]

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.[34] The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: