The works of American author Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) include many poems, short stories, and one novel. His fiction spans multiple genres, including horror fiction, adventure, science fiction, and detective fiction, a genre he is credited with inventing.[1] These works are generally considered part of the Dark romanticism movement, a literary reaction to Transcendentalism.[2] Poe's writing reflects his literary theories: he disagreed with didacticism[3] and allegory.[4] Meaning in literature, he said in his criticism, should be an undercurrent just beneath the surface; works whose meanings are too obvious cease to be art.[5] Poe pursued originality in his works, and disliked proverbs.[6] He often included elements of popular pseudosciences such as phrenology[7] and physiognomy.[8] His most recurring themes deal with questions of death, including its physical signs, the effects of decomposition, concerns of premature burial, the reanimation of the dead, and mourning.[9] Though known as a masterly practitioner of Gothic fiction, Poe did not invent the genre; he was following a long-standing popular tradition.[10]

Poe's literary career began in 1827 with the release of 50 copies of Tamerlane and Other Poems credited only to "a Bostonian", a collection of early poems that received virtually no attention.[11] In December 1829, Poe released Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems in Baltimore[12] before delving into short stories for the first time with "Metzengerstein" in 1832.[13] His most successful and most widely read prose during his lifetime was "The Gold-Bug",[14] which earned him a $100 prize, the most money he received for a single work.[15] One of his most important works, "The Murders in the Rue Morgue", was published in 1841 and is today considered the first modern detective story.[16] Poe called it a "tale of ratiocination".[1] Poe became a household name with the publication of "The Raven" in 1845,[17] though it was not a financial success.[18] The publishing industry at the time was a difficult career choice and much of Poe's work was written using themes specifically catered for mass market tastes.[19]

Poetry

Title
Date
First published in
Notes
"Poetry" 1824 Never published in Poe's lifetime [20]
"O, Tempora! O, Mores!" 1825 Never published in Poe's lifetime Not authenticated,[21] attribution to Poe is likely incorrect[22]
"Tamerlane" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [23]
"Song" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [24]
"Imitation" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [24]
"A Dream" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [24]
"The Lake" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [23]
"Spirits of the Dead" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [23]
"Evening Star" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [23]
"Dreams" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [25]
"Stanzas" July 1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems [26]
"The Happiest Day" September 15, 1827 The North American [24]
"To Margaret" circa 1827 Never published in Poe's lifetime [27]
"Alone" 1829 Never published in Poe's lifetime [28]
"To Isaac Lea" circa 1829 Never published in Poe's lifetime [29]
"To The River ——" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems [30]
"To ——" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems Begins "The bowers whereat, in dreams..."[31]
"To ——" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems Begins "Should my early life seem..."[31]
"Romance" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems [24]
"Fairy-Land" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems [24]
"To Science" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems [32]
"Al Aaraaf" 1829 Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems [24]
"An Acrostic" 1829 Never published in Poe's lifetime [24]
"Elizabeth" 1829 Never published in Poe's lifetime [33]
"To Helen" 1831 Poems by Edgar A. Poe [33]
"A Paean" 1831 Poems by Edgar A. Poe [34]
"The Sleeper" 1831 Poems by Edgar A. Poe [34]
"The City in the Sea" 1831 Poems by Edgar A. Poe [34]
"The Valley of Unrest" 1831 Poems by Edgar A. Poe [34]
"Israfel" 1831 Poems by Edgar A. Poe [34]
"Enigma" February 2, 1833 Baltimore Saturday Visiter [35]
"Fanny" May 18, 1833 Baltimore Saturday Visiter [36]
"The Coliseum" October 26, 1833 Baltimore Saturday Visiter [37]
"Serenade" April 20, 1833 Baltimore Saturday Visiter [38]
"To One in Paradise" January 1834 Godey's Lady's Book [30]
"Hymn" April 1835 Southern Literary Messenger [39]
"To Elizabeth" September 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Republished as "To F——s S. O——d" in 1845[33]
"May Queen Ode" circa 1836 Never published in Poe's lifetime [40]
"Spiritual Song" 1836 Never published in Poe's lifetime [41]
"Latin Hymn" March 1836 Southern Literary Messenger [42]
"Bridal Ballad" January 1837 Southern Literary Messenger Originally published as "Ballad"[43]
"To Zante" January 1837 Southern Literary Messenger [32]
"The Haunted Palace" April 1839 American Museum [44]
"Silence–A Sonnet" January 4, 1840 Saturday Courier [45]
"Lines on Joe Locke" February 28, 1843 Saturday Museum [46]
"The Conqueror Worm" January 1843 Graham's Magazine [47]
"Lenore" February 1843 The Pioneer [48]
"A Campaign Song" 1844 Never published in Poe's lifetime [49]
"Dream-Land" June 1844 Graham's Magazine [47]
"Impromptu. To Kate Carol" April 26, 1845 Broadway Journal [50]
"To F——" April 1845 Broadway Journal Republished as "To Frances" in the September 6, 1845, issue of the Broadway Journal[33]
"Eulalie" July 1845 American Review: A Whig Journal [51]
"Epigram for Wall Street" January 23, 1845 Evening Mirror [52]
"The Raven" February 1845 American Review: A Whig Journal [53]
"The Divine Right of Kings" October 1845 Graham's Magazine [54]
"A Valentine" February 21, 1846 Evening Mirror Originally published as "To Her Whose Name Is Written Below"[55]
"Beloved Physician" 1847 Never published in Poe's lifetime Incomplete[56]
"Deep in Earth" 1847 Never published in Poe's lifetime Incomplete[57]
"To M. L. S—— (1847)" March 13, 1847 The Home Journal [33]
"Ulalume" December 1847 American Whig Review [58]
"Lines on Ale" 1848 Never published in Poe's lifetime [59]
"To Marie Louise" March 1848 Columbian Magazine [60]
"An Enigma" March 1848 Union Magazine of Literature and Art [58]
"To Helen" November 1848 Sartain's Union Magazine [33]
"A Dream Within A Dream" March 31, 1849 The Flag of Our Union [58]
"Eldorado" April 21, 1849 Flag of Our Union [61]
"For Annie" April 28, 1849 Flag of Our Union [58]
"To My Mother" July 7, 1849 Flag of Our Union [30]
"Annabel Lee" October 9, 1849 New York Daily Tribune Sold before Poe's death but published posthumously[62]
"The Bells" November 1849 Sartain's Union Magazine Sold before Poe's death but published posthumously
Title
Publication date
First published in
Genre
Notes
"Metzengerstein" January 14, 1832 Philadelphia Saturday Courier Horror / Satire First published anonymously with the subtitle "A Tale in Imitation of the German"[13]
"The Duc de L'Omelette" March 3, 1832 Philadelphia Saturday Courier Humor Originally "The Duke of l'Omelette"[63]
"A Tale of Jerusalem" June 9, 1832 Philadelphia Saturday Courier Humor [64]
"Loss of Breath" November 10, 1832 Philadelphia Saturday Courier Humor Originally "A Decided Loss"[64]
"Bon-Bon" December 1, 1832 Philadelphia Saturday Courier Humor Originally "The Bargain Lost"[64]
"MS. Found in a Bottle" October 19, 1833 Baltimore Saturday Visiter Adventure [65]
"The Assignation" January 1834 Godey's Lady's Book Horror Originally "The Visionary", published anonymously[66]
"Berenice" March 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Horror [39]
"Morella" April 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Horror [39]
"Lionizing" May 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Satire Subtitle: "A Tale"[39]
"The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" June 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Adventure [39]
"King Pest" September 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Horror / Humor Originally "King Pest the First", published anonymously[67]
"Shadow—A Parable" September 1835 Southern Literary Messenger Horror Published anonymously[67]
"Four Beasts in One—The Homo-Cameleopard" March 1836 Southern Literary Messenger Humor Originally "Epimanes"[68]
"Mystification" June 1837 American Monthly Magazine Humor Originally "Von Jung, the Mystific"[69]
"Silence—A Fable" 1838 Baltimore Book Horror / Fantasy Originally "Siope—A Fable"[60]
"Ligeia" September 1838 Baltimore American Museum Horror Republished in the February 15, 1845, issue of the New York World, included the poem "The Conqueror Worm" as words written by Ligeia on her death-bed[70]
"How to Write a Blackwood Article" November 1838 Baltimore American Museum Parody An introduction to "A Predicament"[71]
"A Predicament" November 1838 Baltimore American Museum Parody Companion to "How to Write a Blackwood Article," originally "The Scythe of Time"[71]
"The Devil in the Belfry" May 18, 1839 Saturday Chronicle and Mirror of the Times Humor / Satire [72]
"The Man That Was Used Up" August 1839 Burton's Gentleman's Magazine Satire [73]
"The Fall of the House of Usher" September 1839 Burton's Gentleman's Magazine Horror [74]
"William Wilson" October 1839 The Gift: A Christmas and New Year's Present for 1840 Horror [75]
"The Conversation of Eiros and Charmion" December 1839 Burton's Gentleman's Magazine Science fiction [75]
"Why the Little Frenchman Wears His Hand in a Sling" 1840 Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque Humor [76]
"The Business Man" February 1840 Burton's Gentleman's Magazine Humor Originally "Peter Pendulum"[75]
"The Man of the Crowd" December 1840 Graham's Magazine Horror [77]
"The Murders in the Rue Morgue" April 1841 Graham's Magazine Detective fiction [16]
"A Descent into the Maelström" April 1841 Graham's Magazine Adventure [76]
"The Island of the Fay" June 1841 Graham's Magazine Fantasy [76]
"The Colloquy of Monos and Una" August 1841 Graham's Magazine Science fiction [78]
"Never Bet the Devil Your Head" September 1841 Graham's Magazine Satire Subtitled "A Tale with a Moral"[79]
"Eleonora" Fall 1841 The Gift for 1842 Romance [80]
"Three Sundays in a Week" November 27, 1841 Saturday Evening Post Humor Originally "A Succession of Sundays"[81]
"The Oval Portrait" April 1842 Graham's Magazine Horror Originally "Life in Death"[82]
"The Masque of the Red Death" May 1842 Graham's Magazine Horror Originally "The Mask of the Red Death"[83]
"The Landscape Garden" October 1842 Snowden's Ladies' Companion Sketch Later incorporated into "The Domain of Arnheim"[84]
"The Mystery of Marie Rogêt" November 1842, December 1842, February 1843 (serialized)[69] Snowden's Ladies' Companion Detective fiction Originally subtitled "A Sequel to 'The Murders in the Rue Morgue'"[85]
"The Pit and the Pendulum" 1842–1843 The Gift: A Christmas and New Year's Present Horror [86]
"The Tell-Tale Heart" January 1843 The Pioneer Horror [87]
"The Gold-Bug" June 1843 Dollar Newspaper Adventure [88]
"The Black Cat" August 19, 1843 United States Saturday Post Horror [89]
"Diddling" October 14, 1843 Philadelphia Saturday Courier Parody Originally "Raising the Wind; or, Diddling Considered as One of the Exact Sciences"[90]
"The Spectacles" March 27, 1844 Dollar Newspaper Humor [91]
"A Tale of the Ragged Mountains" April 1844 Godey's Lady's Book Science fiction, Adventure [91]
"The Premature Burial" July 31, 1844 Dollar Newspaper Horror [92]
"Mesmeric Revelation" August 1844 Columbian Magazine Science fiction [93]
"The Oblong Box" September 1844 Godey's Lady's Book Horror / Ratiocination [94]
"The Angel of the Odd" October 1844 Columbian Magazine Humor Subtitled "An Extravaganza"[95]
"Thou Art the Man" November 1844 Godey's Lady's Book Detective fiction / Satire [94]
"The Literary Life of Thingum Bob, Esq." December 1844 Southern Literary Messenger Humor [94]
"The Purloined Letter" 1844–1845 The Gift: A Christmas and New Year's Present Detective fiction [96]
"The Thousand-and-Second Tale of Scheherazade" February 1845 Godey's Lady's Book Humor Meant as a sequel to One Thousand and One Nights[97]
"Some Words with a Mummy" April 1845 American Review: A Whig Journal Satire [98]
"The Power of Words" June 1845 Democratic Review Science fiction [99]
"The Imp of the Perverse" July 1845 Graham's Magazine Horror [100]
"The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether" November 1845 Graham's Magazine Humor [101]
"The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar" December 1845 The American Review Horror / Science fiction / Hoax Originally "The Facts of M. Valdemar's Case"[102]
"The Sphinx" January 1846 Arthur's Ladies Magazine Satire [103]
"The Cask of Amontillado" November 1846 Godey's Lady's Book Horror [104]
"The Domain of Arnheim" March 1847 Columbian Lady's and Gentleman's Magazine Sketch Expansion of previous story "The Landscape Garden"[105]
"Mellonta Tauta" February 1849 Godey's Lady's Book Science fiction / Hoax [106]
"Hop-Frog" March 17, 1849 Flag of Our Union Horror Subtitled "Or, The Eight Chained Ourang-Outangs"[58]
"Von Kempelen and His Discovery" April 14, 1849 Flag of Our Union Hoax / Satire [58]
"X-ing a Paragrab" May 12, 1849 Flag of Our Union Humor [107]
"Landor's Cottage" June 9, 1849 Flag of Our Union Sketch Originally "Landor's Cottage: A Pendant to 'The Domain of Arnheim'"

Essays