Hsinchu County

新竹縣
Hsinchu County Montage.png
Flag of Hsinchu County
Flag
Coat of arms of Hsinchu County
Coat of arms
Taiwan ROC political division map Hsinchu County.svg
Coordinates: 24°50′0″N 121°0′53″E / 24.83333°N 121.01472°E / 24.83333; 121.01472Coordinates: 24°50′0″N 121°0′53″E / 24.83333°N 121.01472°E / 24.83333; 121.01472
CountryRepublic of China (Taiwan)
RegionNorthwestern Taiwan
SeatZhubei City
Largest cityZhubei City
Boroughs1 cities, 12 (3 urban, 9 rural) townships
Government
 • County MagistrateYang Wen-ke (KMT)
Area
 • Total1,427.59 km2 (551.20 sq mi)
Area rank12 of 22
Population
(January 2017)
 • Total547,794
 • Rank11 of 22
 • Density380/km2 (990/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Websitewww.hsinchu.gov.tw
Symbols
BirdMuller's barbet (Megalaima oorti)
FlowerCamellia
TreeBroad-leaved podocarpus (Nageia nagi)
Hsinchu County
Traditional Chinese新竹
Simplified Chinese新竹

Hsinchu County (Mandarin Pīnyīn: Xīnzhú Xiàn; Hakka PFS: Sîn-chuk-yen; Hokkien POJ: Sin-tek-koān) is a county in north-western Taiwan. The population of the county is mainly Hakka; there is a Taiwanese aboriginal minority in the southeastern part of the county. Zhubei is the county capital, where the government office and county office is located. A portion of the Hsinchu Science Park is located in Hsinchu County.

History

Before the arrival of Han people, the Hsinchu area was the homeland of Taokas Pingpu, Saisiyat, and Atayal tribes. In 1626, after Spain occupied northern Taiwan, Spanish missionaries arrived at Teckcham (Chinese: 竹塹; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tek-khàm). Fukienese (Hoklo) and Hakka people came during the Ming Dynasty era (1368-1644) and began to cultivate the land from the plains near the sea towards the river valleys and hills.

Qing Dynasty

In 1684, Zhuluo County was established during Qing Dynasty rule, and Han people again cultivated the Teckcham area. Teckcham was first settled by Han Chinese in 1711 and renamed Hsinchu in 1875.[1] Hsinchu was a part of Taipeh Prefecture. In the late 19th century, Hoklo people dominated the coastal plain area, forcing the Saisiyat and Atayal tribes to move to Jianshi and Wufeng area, while the Hakka and Taokas plains tribes settled together in the river valleys and hills area.

Japanese rule

In 1920, during the Japanese rule of Taiwan, Shinchiku Prefecture covered the areas of modern-day Hsinchu County, Hsinchu City, Miaoli County and Taoyuan City.

Post-war

After the handover of Taiwan from Japan to the Republic of China in 1945, Hsinchu County was established on 25 December 1945.[2]

Xiangshan Township of the county was incorporated into Hsinchu City on 1 July 1982, .

Geography

Hsinchu County is located at the northwest part of Taiwan Island. It borders Taoyuan City to the north, Miaoli County to the south, Taiwan Strait to the west and Xueshan and Dabajian Mountain to the east. With an area spanning up to 1,427.59 km2 (551.20 sq mi), Hsinchu County area composed mainly of uplands, tablelands and mountains, except for the alluvial plains of the Fengshan River and Touqian River mouth area and partial ancient river land.[2]

Climate

Average Temperature of Hsinchu

The average climate in Hsinchu County is mild.[3]

Administration

Yang Wen-ke, the incumbent Magistrate of Hsinchu County

Hsinchu County controls 1 city, 3 urban townships, 6 rural townships and 2 mountain indigenous townships.[4] Zhubei City is the seat of Hsinchu County which houses the Hsinchu County Government and Hsinchu County Council. The incumbent Magistrate of Hsinchu County is Yang Wen-ke of the Kuomintang. The administrative division of the county are:

Type Name Chinese Hokkien Hakka Formosan
City Zhubei City 竹北市 Tek-pak Tsuk-pet
Urban
townships
Guanxi 關西鎮 Koan-se Kûan-sî Atayal
Xinpu 新埔鎮 Sin-po͘ Sîn-phû
Zhudong 竹東鎮 Tek-tang Tsuk-tûng
Rural
townships
Baoshan 寶山鄉 Pó-san Pó-sân
Beipu 北埔鄉 Pak-po͘ Pet-phû
Emei 峨眉鄉 Gô-bî Ngô-mì
Hengshan 橫山鄉 Hoâiⁿ-san Vàng-sân
Hukou 湖口鄉 Ô͘-kháu Fù-khiéu
Qionglin 芎林鄉 Khiông-nâ Khiûng-lìm
Xinfeng 新豐鄉 Sin-hong Sîn-fûng
Mountain
indigenous
townships
Jianshi 尖石鄉 Chiam-chio̍h Tsiâm-sa̍k Atayal
Wufeng 五峰鄉 Ngó͘-hong Ńg-fûng Atayal, Saisiyat

Colors indicate the common language status of Hakka and Formosan languages within each division.

Demographics

YearPop.±%
1985 366,566—    
1990 374,492+2.2%
1995 408,577+9.1%
2000 439,713+7.6%
2005 487,692+10.9%
2010 513,015+5.2%
2015 542,042+5.7%
Source:"Populations by city and country in Taiwan". Ministry of the Interior Population Census.

The population of the county consists of Hakka, Hoklo, aborigines and new immigrants. The Hakka people constituted around 84% of the total population in 2014, while the aborigines consisted mainly of Atayal and Saisiyat people.[5] As of January 2017, the total population was 547,794, with 267,599 females and 280,195 males in 187,644 households.[6]

Economy

High tech industry

After the founding of Hsinchu Science Park in 1980, a high number of high-tech industries began to grow and expand outside the park, attracting workers coming to work and settle in the county.

Education

Education in Hsinchu County is administered by the Education Department of Hsinchu County Government. The county is home to the Minghsin University of Science and Technology and Ta Hwa University of Science and Technology.

Energy

Power generations

Hsinchu County is home to the gas-fired Hsintao Power Plant with a capacity of 600 MW located in Guanxi Township.

Water supply

Hsinchu County houses the Baoshan Dam, supplying cooling water for factories in the Hsinchu Science Park and neighboring Hsinchu City. The dam can contain water up to 5,470,000 m3 with a catchment area of 3.2 km2 (1.2 sq mi).

Tourist attractions