Physical map of Earth
with political borders as of 2016
Geography (from Greek: γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes (276–194 BC). Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be.
Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere.
is a state
in South India
. It was created
on 1 November 1956 with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act
, and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava
(Formation Day). Originally known as the State of Mysore
, it was renamed Karnataka
in 1973. It is the land of the Kannadiga
, and Kodava
peoples. With over 61 million inhabitants as of 2011, Karnataka is the ninth largest state by population
in India. Kannada
is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The two main river systems of the state are Krishna
and its tributaries (Bhima
, and Tungabhadra
) in the north, and the Cauvery
and its tributaries (Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavathi, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini) in the south. Both these rivers flow eastward and fall into the Bay of Bengal
. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic
, Karnataka has also been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India
. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both the Carnatic
forms of Indian classical music.
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David Alexander Johnston
was a volcanologist
with the United States Geological Survey
(USGS) who was killed by the 1980 eruption
of Mount St. Helens
in Washington. One of the principal scientists on the monitoring team, Johnston died while manning an observation post on the morning of May 18, 1980. He was the first to report the eruption, transmitting the famous message "Vancouver! Vancouver! This is it!" before being swept away by the lateral blast
created by the collapse of the mountain's north flank. His work and that of his fellow USGS scientists had convinced the authorities to close Mount St. Helens to the general public and to maintain the closure in spite of heavy pressure to re-open the area; their work saved thousands of lives. His story has become part of the popular image of volcanic eruptions and their threat to society, and also part of the history of volcanology. Following his death, Johnston was commemorated in several ways, including a memorial fund set up in his name at the University of Washington
, and two volcano observatories that were named after him. Johnston's life and death have been featured in several documentaries, films, docudramas and books about the eruption. Along with other people killed by the volcano, Johnston's name is inscribed on memorials dedicated to their memory.
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